The three most common ENT problems associated with children are:

The tonsils are located on each side of the mouth cavity behind the tongue. They are easily seen especially if enlarged. The tonsils are sometimes removed (tonsilectomy) because they are large and interfere with breathing or swallowing. More often they are removed because of infections of the tonsils.

The adenoids are in the back of the nasal passages near the eustachian tube opening. They are hidden from view by the palate. Adenoidectomy or the removal of the adenoids is usually done for frequent ear infections and obstructions to breathing caused by enlarged or infected adenoids.

Recurrent ear infections may produce fluid in the middle ear with subsequent hearing loss. This can cause speech delays and learning deficits that can be devastating to children.

If these infections are not responsive to antibiotics then a tympanostomy (tube insertion) may be recommended which removes fluid behind the ear drum and reverses hearing loss.

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